Fine grinding tools in sintered ruby
FRIATEC AG manufactures fine grinding tools in sintered ruby which have been successfully used for decades in many sectors of industry.
The sintered ruby material is unique in the grinding media market. Whilst conventional grinding tools consist of natural stone or a non-homogenous composition of abrasive grains with different bondings, sintered ruby is a homogenous crystalline material. Sintered ruby is free of binding agents and is made up of a composite crystal, with aluminium oxide being the main component. Additives of chromium oxide increase hardness and cause the typical ruby red colour.
Due to the use of pure synthetic raw materials, the quality of these fine grinding tools remains consistently high and, unlike with natural products, there are no fluctuations.
The main features of fine grinding tools in sintered ruby are:
- long service life
- extreme hardness
- great resistance to wear and tear
- outstanding surface finish
The tools are available in different grades: ‘fine’, ‘medium’ and ‘coarse’. The comprehensive range available includes whetstones and abrasive files, grinding and burnishing wheels, and mounted points. The items are continuously being manufactured in standard dimensions and are thus easily available. Customer specific variations to the design are also an option.
Fine grinding tools in sintered ruby are suitable for all mechanical tasks where the smooth finish of surfaces is paramount and removal of the material comes in second place. This is why they are used for fine grinding, whetting, sharpening, deburring, smoothing and polishing. Materials which can be processed are above all hard and stark abraded materials such as steel, glass and porcelain.
Fine grinding tools in sintered ruby are used in the following sectors of industry:
- precision engineering
- watch and clock
- tool and die manufacturing
- glass industry
- porcelain industry
- electrical industry
Due to their longstanding success, fine grinding tools in sintered ruby have now become a “classic“ in the worker’s tool box.
FRIALIT Ceramic Components for Sensors
FRIATEC AG manufacture high quality parts made from FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT ceramics for applications involving complex and demanding requirements. Sensor technology is an interesting, ever-growing area often requiring the use of ceramics. For example:
Pressure sensors: Analysers made from FRIALIT F99.7 for pressure sensors and pressure transducers are applied today for temperatures ranging from -50 to +150°C and for pressures up to several hundred bar (depending on the design). The membranes are manufactured at a thickness of 0.2 mm and measure up to 80 mm across. Glass or active brazing may be used to join the ceramic parts. The materials for the electrodes are chosen in line with customer requirements. The analysers can be used in the chemical industry, the food and pharmaceutical industry, the petrochemical industry as well as in space travel.
Microwaves and radar sensors for contact-free measurements: FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT products are used increasingly in sensor systems for material analysis and as a window and aerial for level indication. Due to their optical features it is possible, when using aluminium oxide DEGUSSIT AL23hf, to focus microwaves more precisely than when using other materials, e.g. glass or plastic. Smaller component measurements can now be realised.
Ceramic analysers with sintered platinum electrodes for magnetic-inductive flowmeters have been developed in close co-operation between FRIATEC and another manufacturer. These products provide precise analysis results and top reliability in arduous applications e.g. bottling plants in the drinks industry.
Capacitive level analysing plants: ceramic sensor components and sensor rings (partially metallised and soldered) for the capacitive analysis of the ambient media are very successfully applied in the off shore industry for the pressure range up to 1000 bar. Such systems allow for the exact determination of the proportion of different substances in liquid and gaseous media.
Oxygen sensors: Due to its special structural features, the material zirconium oxide FZY is a tried and tested material for measuring the proportion of oxygen in gases and molten materials, for the regulation of incineration, carbonisation and glass melting processes and for the supervision of pure gas atmospheres e.g. in the manufacturing of food.
The particular features of the ceramic materials by FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT for sensors are:
- Low product dimensions
- Low hysteresis of the measuring signals up to the range of 0.05 % resulting in high consistency of the results
- Great natural stability
- High resistance to corrosive and abrasive attack
- FDA licence
FRIATEC achieves optimum and reliable problem solutions through continual development of materials and products in close co-operation with its customers.
Ceramic-to-metal assemblies for research and development
FRIATEC Mannheim with products from the division FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT is one of the leading manufacturers for ceramic-to-metal assemblies. Besides clamping, bonding, screwing and shrinking, especially brazing is one of the most common jointing technologies.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), one of the biggest science and engineering research institutions in Europe, is currently running one of the most interesting experiments in the field of particle physics – the measurement of the rest mass of the neutrino: KATRIN (Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment). The properties of neutrinos are important for the fundamental understanding of particle physics. Furthermore, scientists expect insights into the Big Bang theory and thereby other aspects of Cosmology and Astrophysics. In close collaboration with an international research association, components of an electrostatic spectrometer tank are currently being installed. With a diameter of 10 metres and a length of 23 metres, the tank is larger than any previous ultra-high vacuum chamber. For particle detection, several insulating components are essential, and even the full weight of the vacuum tank of over 300 tonnes must rest on highly insulating sustainers.
|The 200 ton spectrometer chamber, on part of its 8600 km journey to Karlsruhe, passing through Leopoldshafen.|
One of the most advanced ceramic-to-metal assemblies are produced by FRIATEC AG, Mannheim, Germany. As a specialist in the field of ceramic and ceramic-to-metal components with over 40 years experience, the manufacture of the detector electrode was an interesting challenge. The task was to create a mechanically strong and UHV compatible metal-ceramic interface. The differences in thermal expansion of alumina, nickel-iron and titanium had to be compensated by design modifications. FRIATEC’s alumina, FRIALIT F99.7 combines the advantage of excellent electrical resistance with the highest mechanical strength.
The photo above shows a part of the detector electrode welded on a 500 mm diameter steel flange for installation.
For lowest residual gas pressures (<1×10-11 mbar) the vessel walls can be baked out using a thermal oil up to 350°C and then cooled down to operate at -20°C. In this application, electrically insulated units are also required. Liquid feedthroughs with a nominal diameter of 28 mm and capable of insulating voltages up to 150 kV were used. The KATRIN Experiment highlights the prominent position of ceramic-to-metal assemblies for electrical insulating, temperature resistant and mechanically strong components.
FRIATEC produces most of the ceramic-to-metal assemblies according to customers specification. Together with the customer they define optimised components in order to receive a functional system.
Metering, bottling and mixing of paints and varnishes with FRIALIT ceramic components
Ceramic is the material of the future. Leading manufacturers of injectors, valves, piston pumps and slide bearings are already using components made from FRIALIT ceramics to refine their products. The corrosion resistant and shape-retaining material has been proven to be a reliable contributor, especially with liquids containing highly viscous particles or crystalines. Incidentally, sealing rings in connection with the use of ceramics are now history.
The FRIALIT ceramic components compared with traditional materials are convincing, because in addition to the features already listed they present very low wear and tear, maximum precision, low weight and low maintenance. Their shape retaining qualities are guaranteed due to the high E-module and low heat expansion. For this reason, FRIALIT ceramic is suited particularly for high performance units which are employed for example in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Convincing in all areas of application: machinery and units using FRIALIT ceramic stand out for their longevity and short service times.
To opt for ceramic means to invest in the future. The FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT professionals are always happy to develop customer specific problem solutions, to advise new customers on the application of ceramic and to help them find the optimum solution.
FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT stands for:
- Resistance to corrosion in aggressive media
- Resistance to abrasive particles
- Shape retention due to high E-module and low heat expansion
- Simple and safe cleaning (CIP, SIP)
- Maximum precision e.g. with metering units
- Low weight (approx 50% less compared with steel)
FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT is used for the manufacture of:
- Valves (balls, seats, disks…)
- Piston pumps (pistons, plungers, cylinder…)
- Slide bearings (shaft sleeves, bushing, shafts…)
- Injectors (injection valves, dispersing injectors…)
FRIALIT Ceramic Components for induction hardening
Often metal parts e.g. pipes, wires, ribbons etc. are hardened in order to optimise their mechanical properties. Induction hardening today plays a central role in induction heating applications. In addition FRIALIT GP79 and HP79 silicon nitride materials by FRIATEC are used in the appropriate induction heating equipment. The ceramic components serve to align and position the material to be hardened. Several years of experiments and research involving customers have proven that the ceramic materials FRIALIT GP79 or HP79 have outstanding qualities compared to other materials e.g. steel, glass and also other ceramic materials.
- No heating by the magnetic field
- high resistance to wear and tear with abrasive products
- optimum stability
- long service life
- no metal deposits on product
- temperature resistance up to 1400°C
- extremely high resistance to thermal shock
- good electrical insulation qualities
Using FRIALIT GP79 or HP79 has the following benefits: simple handling due to low specific weight. Hardly any dirt and grease will cling to the ceramic components, and this will improve operational safety. Cleaning processes can be greatly reduced. As the ceramic is not warmed via the magnetic field, the use of electricity can be reduced by using this material. The benefits listed have a positive effect on production cost and quality consistency.
Welding and Location Pins made from FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT High Performance Ceramics used in Car Manufacturing
FRIATEC AG in Mannheim is one of the leading manufacturers of ceramic products in the world. A lot of work has been done in co-operation with leading car manufacturers in Germany and Sweden towards finding solutions for a smooth production process in body- shops. There is far better welding, centring and insulating with the use of ceramic parts.
Misaligned or worn positioning elements made from steel adversely affect the accuracy of construction units. This can lead to dimensional deviations, or even scrappage. Assembly departments and paint-shops may even experience problems when attempting to assemble parts accurately. The metal ceramics connecting method recently developed by FRIATEC allows this connection now to present much improved properties than those of each individual material used.
Customer benefits when using these state-of-the-art welding and location pins are:
- Service life 50-80 times longer than steel
- Weld spatter does not adhere
- No need for additional isolation, as ceramic is self-insulating
- Quality remains at high level
- Short set-up and down times
- Low maintenance costs
Location pins made by FRIATEC are used for welding units both manual and automatic, for robot welding as well as integrated in complete transfer lines. The FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT materials are already being used by AUDI, VOLVO, BMW, PORSCHE, DAIMLER-CHYRSLER, VW etc.
The construction for customer-specific problem applications is supported by a team of experienced technicians and engineers from the FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT division.
FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT Oxide Ceramic Components for Radar and Microwave Technics
FRIATEC has developed a special Alumina ceramic for applications in radar and microwave fields. Because of its excellent electrical and mechanical properties the material can be used as high-grade microwave screens and high frequency filters. Products made from DEGUSSIT AL23HF are applied with great success as microwave windows and antennas in radar-measuring systems and for applications with additional requirements for compressive strength and temperature stability.
Other possible applications for DEGUSSIT AL23HF are components for isolators and supports in the telecommunication industry e.g. communication antennas, amplifiers, high frequency filters and electronic equipment for antenna systems. Examples for further applications are: systems for acceleration of pharmaceutical production processes, microwave heating equipment systems, sensors and analytical instruments.
The material FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT AL23HF offers extraordinary qualities:
- AL23HF has a high optical fraction value against other materials like glass or plastics. Because of that the microwaves can be focused and better controlled. The components can be made of small size and therefore can very easily be integrated in smaller units.
- AL23HF offers because of its high dielectric constant (ε = 9.8) and low dielectric loss factor (tan δ = 10–4) contrary to many other materials the possibility to realise microwave resonators with high-grade quality and temperature stability in manageable component sizes.
- AL23HF is temperature (up to 1950°C) and wear resistant, and has a very high form stability and with 5,7 x10-6/K (20-100°C) a low thermal expansion.
- AL23HF has a FDA permit and is therefore qualified and ideally suited to application involved in the food and pharmaceutical processing industry.
In addition to AL23HF, FRIATEC AG can also supply SiO2-glass in various qualities for hybrid constructions.
Large Components made of FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT Oxide Ceramics
The well-established FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT oxide ceramic materials have been proven in industry for decades. Wear and corrosion, often the decisive factors regarding the product life of equipment and machines, could be significantly reduced by the use of FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT. Over the years, the geometry of components has grown and FRIATEC AG today sees an increasing demand for larger components, particularly for those machine parts which are in contact with the medium in high pressure pumps, and work under extreme conditions regarding corrosion, wear and temperature. Products such as pistons, plungers, bearings and wear-strips are used very successfully; moreover, FRIATEC AG has achieved maximum dimensions of Ø 200 and lengths up to 1200 mm.
FRIATEC AG can now offer the following FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT materials for these large components:
- FRIALIT F99.7 (Al2O3 99.7%)
- FRIALIT FZM (MgO stab. ZrO2 , MgPSZ)
- FRIALIT FZT (Al2O3 + ZrO2, ZTA).
In comparison with conventional materials, FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT oxide ceramics offer the following outstanding characteristics:
- high strength and shape accuracy
- extreme wear resistance
- low thermal expansion
- excellent corrosion resistance against aggressive media
- high temperature resistance up to almost 1800°C
- resistance against molten materials
- very high electrical insulating properties
- FDA-approval regarding food contact
- excellent surface finish and low friction
- large wall thickness possible
- can be used for applications with abrading and sliding stresses without lubricant.
These large components made of FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT materials are applied for example as crucibles, high temperature components and parts in fuel cells and piezo linear motors, as well as in the oil production, petrochemical, galvanizing and water treatment industries, hydroelectric power plants and steel works.
FRIATEC AG Expands its CIM-Technique for FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT Oxide Ceramics
During the last 3 years, FRIATEC AG has been intensifying the development of its Ceramic Injection Moulding technique for FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT oxide ceramics and has invested in new production and de-binding equipment. A new binder system had to be developed, as the commercial binder systems on the market did not meet the strict requirements of FRIATEC AG. Now the following advantages can be achieved:
- easier injection moulding
- easier filling of cavity
- lower viscosity of the feed-stocks
- improved form stability of the green body
- pure thermal de-binding process
- shorter de-binding times
- more complex component geometries possible
- near net shape forming
- highest precision, even without reworking
- high reproducibility
With these advantages, we have expanded our range of shaping technologies. At FRIATEC AG, injection moulding is used very successfully for the following FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT materials, which have now been well-proven for decades:
- F99.7-(Alumina, pure)
- FZT -(Alumina, toughened with ZrO2)
- FZM-(Zirconia, Mg-PSZ)
- FZY -(Zirconia, Y-PSZ).
We manufacture customized components with a wall thickness from 0.5 to 6 mm (the wall thickness is a function of the overall geometry of the component). Because of the investment required in tooling, the technique of injection moulding is only economical if there is either a sufficient quantity of components to produce, or a complicated geometry of the part. The use of this modern injection moulding technique allows more cost-effective production of ceramic components compared with other production methods.
In the injection moulding technique, FRIATEC AG sees a technology-enabling production process, which will lead to new markets, new products and new applications. To intensify this process FRIATEC AG is being engaged as an industry-partner in a BMBF-project for Micro-P-PIM (Micro Precision Powder Injection Moulding).